Explain the types of insurance savings and investment products (Chinese Article)

Estimated reading time 7 minutes

10Life Team

09 Aug 2021
用保險來儲蓄究竟有咩玩法?回報vs風險要分清楚!
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10Life Team

09 Aug 2021

Estimated reading time 7 minutes

用於儲錢的保險產品林林總總,常見的有儲蓄保險(可再細分為成短期和終身)、扣稅年金(正名「合資格延期年金保單」,QDAP)、投資相連保險計劃(簡稱「投連險」或ILAS)及萬用壽險。然而,對於上述保險產品,不少消費者都感到混淆,或者因為高回報而投保,但又因早期退保而蝕錢。究竟這些產品有何分別?在投保時有甚麼事項不可不知?今天10Life就跟大家逐一探討這些產品特性,包括回報、用途,以及潛在風險。

圖表1:比較儲蓄保險、扣稅年金、投資相連壽險計劃及萬用壽險的產品

短期儲蓄保險 終身儲蓄保險
(著重儲蓄類)
扣稅年金
(QDAP)
萬用壽險 投資相連壽險計劃
(投連險,ILAS)
供款年期 1至3年1 1至多年1 5至10年1 1至多年1 整付保費至多年
供款金額 固定 固定 固定 固定或不固定
(視乎產品)
固定或不固定
(視乎產品)
設有保證回報 部分產品2 X
扣稅優惠 X X X X
            儲蓄 / 投資年期
短線
(少於10年)
X X 部分產品 X
中線
(10至19年)
X X
長線
(20年或以上)
X
               派發回報方式
一筆過派發 部分產品3
固定分期派發 X 或會派息
(部分產品)
X 或會派息
(部分基金)
註:
1. 部分產品供款設預繳選項。
2. 部分產品設有保證最低派息率(惟僅限指定年期)。
3. 部分產品設有彈性選項,容許保單持有人揀選一筆過形式領取年金。
4. 上表內容僅考慮一般產品特性。
5. 以上資料僅供參考,絕非投資建議。

1. 短期儲蓄保險:回報穩定又保

短期儲蓄保險的保單年期一般較短,多為3至8年。產品著重保證回報,適合較保守的投保人。投保人通常以一筆過或分期繳付保費,期滿後連本帶利取回現金價值。截稿時,市面仍有少部份產品提供超過3%保證回報。由於產品提供保證回報,所以風險相對低,尤其當您選擇的是美元或港幣保單。不過,最近有保險公司提供人民幣保單,其回報可望更高,但投保人要留意(若貨幣貶值所致的)貨幣風險。
如果想比較短期儲蓄保險產品,可瀏覽10Life網站的《產品解碼器》:


2. 終身儲蓄保險:長線財富增值 可攻可守

終身儲蓄保險可用於長線儲蓄,為將來退休、子女讀書、實現夢想(創業、環遊世界)等做好準備。產品提供保證和預期回報,而且保單年期可長至終身。投保人需選定供款年期(1至25年不等),期間繳付固定保費。大家要了解目標年期,以及保單達至目標年期的IRR(內部回報率)。舉例,陳先生打算在20年後供養孩子出國讀書,就可以比較不同終身儲蓄保險的20年期IRR。鑑於終身儲蓄保險需要時間來滾存出價值,若投保人於保單早期退保可能承受損失。

值得留意的是,坊間儲蓄保險的定位不一,回報及風險各有不同:

  • 保守型:著重保證回報
  • 增長型:保證和預期回報相對平衡
  • 進取型:強調預期回報

如果想比較終身儲蓄保險產品,可瀏覽10Life網站的《產品解碼器》:


3. 扣稅年金:既可用於退休和儲蓄 稅務優惠提升回報

年金有很多種,市場最熱的是俗稱「扣稅年金」的合資格延期年金保單(Qualifying Deferred Annuity Policy ,QDAP),保單持有人最高可獲每年HK$60,000的免稅額。扣稅年金提供保證和預期回報,如果將節省的稅項納入回報計算,產品回報率將進一步提高。按規定,QDAP入息期最早由50歲開始,入息期最起碼是10年(視乎保單)。如儲蓄保險般,有些QDAP側重保證回報,有些的預期回報較吸引,大家投保前宜了解產品特性。

與其他產品的主要分別,在於年金是以固定的分期方式發放,例如每月派發,故此坊間有退休之後,利用年金自製長糧一說。不過,QDAP的用途不再限於退休養老。事實上,它亦可用作儲蓄。比較時,客戶需選定供款期、年金開始年齡和入息期相若的產品。在產品用途上,QDAP可分為3種:

  • QDAP (儲蓄年金) – 著重中期的儲蓄回報(遠早於一般的退休年齡開始年金收入)
  • QDAP(退休年金) – 重視中長期的退休規劃(一般的退休年齡開始年金收入,可篩選10年或20年的入息期)
  • QDAP(長壽年金) – 注重對沖長壽風險(一般的退休年齡開始年金收入,派發期越長越好)

4. 萬用壽險:入場門檻較高

萬用壽險入場門檻較高,投保人通常需一筆過繳交大額保費,所以對象是較富裕階層。部份產品於指定年期提供最低保證派息率,投保人可以透過保費融資,以低息(低於萬用壽險的保證派息率)借貸,來繳交大額保費。在借貸成本持續低位的情況下,投保人可賺息差。不過,若借貸利率上升,而保險公司的派息率又追不上時,亦可能招致虧損。

5. 投資相連壽險計劃:投保人需要有一定投資知識 投資失利或導致本金虧損

投資相連壽險計劃(簡稱投連險或ILAS)讓投保人可透過保險來進行「基金投資」。投連險屬於長線投資,回報與所選的基金表現掛鈎,不設保證回報,其人壽保障至少為戶口價值的105%。通常,保險公司會提供多款基金供投保人選擇,基金涵蓋不同地區(如發達國家、新興市場)、國家(如美國、中國)、或行業(如金融、科技)等,讓投保人透過投連險來投資香港以外的市場、行業。

投資基金需留意收費。除了基金本身的收費之外,保險公司也會徵收費用,稱之為額外收費。大家可比較投連險、銀行或網上等買賣基金平台所收取的費用。投連險一般不收取轉換費,有利經常買賣基金的投保人。

投連險回報與所選的基金表現掛鈎,在升市時,回報可以十分可觀;如投資失利,或導致本金虧損,縱使基金過去回報亮麗,也不代表將來表現優秀。順帶一提,除非保險中介人持有證監會(SFC)牌照,否則法例上不容許他們提供基金選擇的建議,所以投保人需要有一定投資知識。

伸延閱讀:

上述產品亦提供人壽保障,但賠償金額視乎產品而定,故此不贅。本文粗略比較各款可用作儲蓄的保險產品,簡單而言,回報與風險成正比,當大家期望搏取更高的回報時,亦要了解自己承擔風險的能力。當有人向您推銷高回報又低風險的產品時,就要份外小心,了解有關產品。歡迎大家透過10Life《保險解碼器》,比較保險計劃。

註:

  1. 以上資訊由10Life提供,更新至2021年8月6日,僅供參考,並不是銷售提議。 

Disclaimer

10Life Product Comparison and 10Life Insurance Ratings are developed by 10Life Financial Limited, an authorised insurance broker with Insurance Authority License Number FB1526. 10Life Product Comparison and 10Life Insurance Ratings are developed for generic customer segments using mathematical calculations based on product information, facts and data, and are not influenced by any partnerships with or fees received from insurance companies.  

Any information on 10Life Platform ("10Life Information"), including but not limited to Product Comparison, Product Ratings, Blog Articles are intended for general education purpose and reference only and should not be constituted as any insurance, financial, investment or other professional advice or solicitation to buy insurance, financial or investment products. 10Life Information does not take into account your individual needs. Reading 10Life Information should not be considered as conducting a suitability assessment. You should only rely on information authorised by insurance companies and/or seek independent advice from licensed intermediaries before purchasing any insurance products or making any insurance decisions. While best effort is used when collecting, validating and updating 10Life Information from various channels, none of 10Life Group and its subsidiaries, affiliates, agents, directors, officers and employees will be responsible for any liability arising from using 10Life Information or for any claims and/or losses caused thereby, and no warranty or guarantee is made on the accuracy, completeness and timeliness of the information.

If you have any questions on 10Life Product Comparison and 10Life Insurance Ratings, please email us at enquiries@10life.com .

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Jack, Ng Wai Lap

黃維立

AXA Unit Manager

4.6
3982
611

Nik, Leung Tsz Kei

梁芷萁

10Life Financial Manager, Insurance Specialist

4.8
1173
274

Arthur, Law Wing Kai

羅永楷

10Life Financial Manager of Business Development

5
245
80

Winnie, Ng Wai King

吳惠琼

FTLife Agency Manager

4.8
1850
309

Even, Shum Miu Chu

岑妙珠

恆泰 高級理財顧問

4.6
1345
250

Philip, Lee Hon Lun

李漢麟

YF Life Branch Manager

4.4
1645
263

Tony, Yeung Chun Fung

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FWD Life Wealth Planner

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Mabel, Siu Sin Wan

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AIA Associate Director, Wealth Management and Protection

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249

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