What Is Medical Financing and What You Need to Know

Estimated reading time 4 minutes

10Life Team

22 Jun 2022
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10Life Team

22 Jun 2022

Estimated reading time 4 minutes

醫療保險幾乎年年加價,常常聽到保險代理提到「醫療融資」(Medical Financing)這項「財技」,稱只要在購買醫療保險時,同時購買一份長期儲蓄保險,未來可以利用該份長期儲蓄保險所滾存的紅利來供醫療保險,並強調若干年內可以「供斷」。
 
到底這個「醫療融資」方案是否可行?該份儲蓄保險最終能否「供斷」醫療保險?還是僅是保險代理的銷售手法?我們認為有一系列變數:
 

1.醫療保險加價

 
進行「醫療融資」時,首先要選定一份醫療保險,並參考保費表上不同年齡的每年保費,再決定動用多少資金買另一份長期儲蓄保險,並以紅利來繳付醫療保費。但問題是醫療保費並非永遠不變,每年均有加價機會,意味投保人須準確預測保費升幅,而有關長期儲蓄保險回報追得上,才能成功「供斷」。
 
醫保保費加價原因有三個——年齡、賠付率及醫療通賬。年齡增加,患病風險亦增加,所以不同年齡層的保費增幅亦不同。此外,每個保險計劃都會建立一個資金池,當有人索償時,便會從中提取資金,當賠付率上升時,即愈多人成功索償,保險公司為控制風險,亦有機會加價。
 
最後是醫療通脹,例如私家病房、手術費、藥物或醫療器械加價,亦會反映在醫保保費之上。醫療技術進步衍生更多治療方案及新藥物,亦會引致醫療成本上升,醫療研發成本,亦有機會轉嫁至消費者。
 
根據Willis Tower Watson的數據,香港於2020年及2021年的醫療通脹分別為6.54%及6.77%,2022年預計為8.22%。今年亦有個別醫保加價幅度高於醫療通脹,我們將會在未來的文章探討。
 

2.儲蓄保險回報率

 
保險代理設計「醫療融資」時,很多時候是基於長期儲蓄保險的預期回報率。假如回報較預期佳,便有機會提早覆蓋醫療保費開支;假如不及預期,成功「供斷」時間便可能延後,甚至不能夠「供斷」,還未計及醫保加價的效應。
 
保險公司會在儲蓄保險上列明保證回報和預期回報,而預期回報又會分作基本、悲觀、樂觀情景,消費者選擇「醫療融資」時,最好計算在不同情景下能否「供斷」,和需時多久才能「供斷」醫保,甚至應加上醫療通脹的考慮,才會有更完整的方向。
 

3.長期儲蓄保險流動性

 
「醫療融資」其中一個迷思,就是當投保人一同購買醫療保險及長期儲蓄保險時,流動性上未必匹配,原因是醫療保險須每年繳付,但長期儲蓄保險有較長的滾存期,短期內提取會嚴重影響本金金額。
 
因此,投保人在長期儲蓄保險滾存期間,就出現一段長達十數年的「真空期」,仍需要自己「揞荷包」繳付醫保保費,直至若干年後長期儲蓄保險滾存到合理的紅利,才能取出以繳付醫保保費,但屆時又要面對醫療保險費用已經幾何級數上升,長期儲蓄保險回報率又未必符合預期。
 

儲蓄保險金額龐大 「醫療融資」才有機實現

 
事實上,「醫療融資」唯一較可行的做法是本身儲蓄保險部份資金額大,而醫療保險保費低,即使回報率不高,亦足以覆蓋醫療保險開支。值得注意的是,長期儲蓄保險僅是其中一個儲蓄手段,轉換其他資產包括基金、債券、高息股等,都有相同「派息」效果可以覆蓋醫療保費,但涉及不同風險。
 
最後,面對保險代理銷售「醫療融資」方案時,須明白這個方案包含非常多的不確定性,包括醫療通脹、儲蓄保險回報率等等,最好先與保險顧問探討不同情景下的結果才投保。此外,若投保人壽命遠較預期長,即使「醫療融資」順利執行,亦需要預留額外資金作日後醫保保費,切忌有「醫療融資」便安枕無憂的想法。
 
註:
    本文最後更新日期:2022年6月22日。

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